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Machu Picchu

Cusco Peru


Machu Picchu (of quechua machu pikchu, "Old mountain") is the contemporary name given to a llaqta (ancient Andean inca village) of stone built mainly in the 15th century on the rocky promontory that connects Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains on the eastern slopes of the Central Andes, South of the Peru. Its original name would have been Picchu or Picho.


Machu Picchu

According to documents from the mid-sixteenth century, Machu Picchu would have been one of the leisure residences of Pachacútec (first Inca Emperor, 1438-1470). However, some of the best buildings and obvious ceremonial character of the main access road to the llaqta would prove that it was used as a religious sanctuary. Both uses, Palace and sanctuary, would not have been incompatible. Some experts seem to have ruled, however, an alleged military character, so the popular qualifiers of "fortress" or "Citadel" could have been overcome.

Machu Picchu is considered a masterpiece of architecture and engineering at the same time. Its peculiar architectural and landscape features, and the veil of mystery that has woven to your around much of the literature published on the site, have made him one of the most popular tourist destinations on the planet.

Machu Picchu is in the Unesco World Heritage list since 1983, as part of a whole cultural and ecological designation historic sanctuary of Machu Picchu. July 7, 2007 Machu Picchu was declared one of the new wonders of the world at a ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal, following the participation of hundreds of millions of voters around the world.


Geographic Location Machu Picchu

Site

It is located at 13 2° 9' 47 "South latitude and 72 2° 32' 44" west longitude. It is part of the District of the same name, in the province of Urubamba, Cusco Department, Peru. The nearest major city is Cusco, current regional capital and former capital of the Incas, 130 km. from there.
Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu Mountain are part of a large rain formation known as the Vilcabamba Batholith in the Central Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes. They are on the left bank of the so-called Urubamba Canyon, formerly known as Picchu Quebrada. At the foot of the hills and practically surrounding them, runs the Vilcanota-Urubamba River. Inca ruins are halfway between the tops of both mountains, at 450 m height above the level of Valley and 2,438 meters above sea level. Built-up area is approximately 530 meters long by 200 in width, with 172 buildings in urban area.

The ruins, as such, are within an intangible territory of the National System of Protected Natural Areas by the State (SINANPE), so-called historic sanctuary of Machu Picchu, which extends on a surface of 32.592 hectares (80.535 acres or 325,92 km) watershed of the River Vilcanota-Urubamba (the Willka mayu or "Holy River" of the incas). Historic Sanctuary protects a number of endangered species and several Inca establishments between wich Machu Picchu is considered primary.


Access forms

The archaeological site itself only is accessible, since the Inca roads up to it, or by using the road Hiram Bingham (which is the slope of the Hill Machu Picchu ruins bridge train station located at the bottom of the Canyon). None of the two forms exempts the visitor of the price of admission to the ruins.

The above-mentioned road, however, is not integrated the national road network of the Peru. Born in the town of Aguas Calientes, which in turn can only be accessed by rail (3 hours from Cusco) or helicopter (30 minutes from Cusco). The absence of a direct road to the sanctuary of Machu Picchu is intentional and allows you to control the flow of visitors to the area, which, given its nature of national reserve, is particularly sensitive to the crowds. This, however, has not prevented from sprawl (criticized for cultural authorities) of Aguas Calientes, who lives for and tourism, there are hotels and restaurants in different categories at this location.

Machu Picchu

To get to Machu Picchu on the main Inca Trail should be a walk of approximately 3 days. You need take the train to the railway km 82 Cusco - Aguas Calientes, where part the route on foot.

Some visitors take a local bus from Cusco to Ollantaytambo (via Urubamba) and hence take transport to the abovementioned 82 km. Once there they flow through the train tracks to cover the 32 km to Aguas Calientes.


Machu Picchu Climate

Time is hot and humid during the day and cool at night. The temperature is between 12 and 24 degrees centigrade. Area is wet (about 1,955 mm per year), especially November to March. Rains are copious, rapidly alternating with moments of intense sunshine.


Machu Picchu History

The Gully of Picchu, located halfway between the Andes and the Amazon forest was a region settled by mountain populations, not jungle, from the regions of Vilcabamba and the Sacred Valley in Cusco, in search of an expansion of its land borders. Archaeological evidence indicates that agriculture is practiced in the region since at least the 760. B.C., population explosion is given of the Middle horizon period from the year 900 B.C., for groups not historically documented but which were possibly linked to the Urubamba Tampu ethnicity. It is believed that these people could have been part of Federation Ayarmaca, rivals of the first Incas of Cusco. During that period was significantly expanded the agricultural area constructed (platforms). However, the site specific city we are dealing with (the Rocky Ridge that connects Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu Mountain) presents no traces of having buildings before the 15th century.


Inca Times (1438-1534)

Towards 1440 during his campaign to Vilcabamba, the gully of Picchu was conquered by Pachacutec, first Inca Emperor (1438-1470). Machu Picchu site should impress the monarch for their peculiar characteristics in Cusco sacred geography. And therefore it would have ordered to be built there, about 1450, an urban complex with luxury civil and religious buildings.

It is believed that Machu Picchu had a mobile population as the majority of the Inca llactas, ranging between 300 and 1,000 inhabitants belonging to an elite (possibly members of the panaca of Pachacutec) and acllas. It has been shown that the agricultural workforce was composed by settlers mitimaes or mitmas (mitmaqkuna) from different corners of the Empire.

Machu Picchu was not an isolated complex from any point of view so the myth of the "lost city" and the "secret refuge" Inca emperors lacks grab. The valleys they converged on the Creek formed a densely populated region that dramatically increased its agricultural productivity from the Inca occupation in 1440. The Incas built there many administrative centers, the most important of which were Patallacta Quente brand and abundant agricultural complexes formed by farming terraces. Machu Picchu depended on these complexes for food, because the fields of the agricultural sector of the city have been insufficient to supply the population. Regional intra communication was possible thanks to the Inca roads networks: eight roads reached Machu Picchu. The small city of Picchu came to differentiate from neighboring populations for the unique quality of their buildings.

On the death of Pachacutec and according with the Inca real customs, it and the rest of their personal property should become the administration of his panaca that should be produced income to the cult of the mummy of the deceased King. It is assumed that this situation would have maintained during the Government of Tupac Yupanqui (1470-1493) and Huayna Capac (1493-1529).

Machu Picchu was partly lost its importance to compete in prestige with the personal property of the successor emperors. In fact, the opening of a road safe and broad between Ollantaytambo and Vilcabamba (of the Amaybamba Valley) made Picchu Creek path less employee.


Time of Transition (1534-1572)

Inca civil war (1531-32) and the Spanish irruption in Cusco in 1534 had considerably affect the life of Machu Picchu. Peasant mass in the region was composed mainly by mitmas, settlers from different Nations conquered by the Incas forcibly taken to that place. They took the fall of the economic system cusquenian to return to their land of origin. Inca resistance against the Spaniards led by Manco Inca in 1536 summoned the nobles of nearby regions integrate its court in exile to Vilcabamba and is very likely that the principal nobles of Picchu have then left the city. Documents of the time indicate that the region was full of "uninhabited" at this time. Picchu would have followed inhabited and registration of their existence as it was considered a tax population of Spanish Commission of Ollantaytambo. This does not necessarily mean the Spaniards to visit Machu Picchu frequently; indeed, we know that Picchu tribute was given to the Spanish once a year in the town of Ollantaytambo and not "collected" locally. Anyway, it is clear the Spanish knew the place, although there is no indication of apreciasen his last important. Colonial documents even mention the name of who was curaca (maybe the last) of Machu Picchu in 1568: Juan Mácora. Call "Juan" indicates that it had been, at least nominally, baptized, and therefore subjected to the Spanish influence.

Another document indicates that Inca Titu Cusi Yupanqui, which was then in Vilcabamba, called Augustinian Friars come to evangelise "piocho" to 1570. Not known anywhere in the area hearing similar to "Piocho" than "Piccho" or "picchu" what does assume Lumbreras that the famous " grubbers idolatrous " could have come to the site and having to do with destruction and fire of the Sun Temple Tower.

Spanish soldier Baltasar Ocampo wrote at the end of the 16th century on a settlement "at the to of a mountain" of "suntuosísimos" buildings and has a great acllahuasi (House of the chosen) in recent years of Inca resistance. The brief description of their environments refers to Picchu. The interesting thing is that Ocampo said that he is called "pitcos". The only place of similar name is "Vitcos", an Inca site in Vilcabamba completely different to that described by Ocampo. The other candidate is naturally Picchu. It is not known yet if it is the same place or not. Ocampo indicates that successor Titu Cusi and Vilcabamba last Inca Tupac Amaru I would have raised here.


Between the Colony and Republic (17th-19th century)

After the fall of the Kingdom of Vilcabamba in 1572 and the consolidation of the Spanish power in the Central Andes, Machu Picchu remained within the jurisdiction of different colonial states that changed hands several times until Republican times (from 1821). However, already had become a remote place, away from the new paths and economic pillars of the Peru. The region was virtually ignored by the colonial regime (not commanded to build Christian temples or administered village in the area), but not by the Andean man.

Indeed, Machu Picchu agricultural sector does not seem to have been completely uninhabited or unknown: 1657 and 1782 documents refer to Machu Picchu in many lands of agricultural interest. Its main buildings, however, its urban area, do not seem to have been occupied and were soon won the cloud forest vegetation.


Machu Picchu in the Nineteenth Century

In 1865, duiring his voyages of discovery through Peru, the Italian naturalist Antonio Raimondi passes at the foot of the ruins unknowingly and alludes to sparsely populated who was then the region. However everything indicates that those years when the area begins to receive visits by other than the purely scientific interests.

In effect a currently ongoing research recently disclosed, reveals information about a German businessman named Augusto Berns who in 1867 not only would have "discovered" the ruins, but that would have founded a "mining" company to exploit the alleged "treasures" which housed (the "company Anonima Explotadora de las Huacas de el Inca"). According to this source, from 1867 to 1870 and with it came from the Government of José Balta, the company would have operated in the area and then sold "all that found" to European and American collectors.

Connected or not with this alleged company (whose existence expected to be confirmed by other sources and authors) is that in those moments when the mining exploration maps are starting to mention Machu Picchu. Thus, in 1870, American Harry Singer placed first in a map the location of Cerro Machu Picchu and refers to Huayna Picchu as "Punta Huaca of the Inca". The name reveals a new relationship between the incas and the mountains and even suggests a character religious (a huaca in the ancient Andes was a sacred place).

A second map of 1874, developed by German Herman Gohring, mentions and located in its exact place both mountains. Finally in 1880 the French Explorer Charles Wiener confirms the existence of archaeological remains in the workplace (said "there are ruins at Machu Picchu"), although it cannot reach the site. In any case it is clear that the existence of the alleged "lost city" not had forgotten, as was believed until some years ago.


Rediscovery of Machu Picchu (1894-1911)

The first direct references on the ruins of Machu Picchu visitors indicate that Agustín Lizárraga, a tenant of land cusquenian, came to the site July 14, 1902 guiding the also cusquenian Gabino Sánchez, Enrique Palma and Justo Ochoa. Visitors left graffiti with their names on one of the walls of the Temple of Three Windows which was subsequently verified by several people. There is information to suggest that Lizárraga had already visited Machu Picchu in the company of Luis Béjar in 1894. Lizarraga showed the constructions to the "visitors", although the nature of their activities has not been far investigated.

Machu Picchu

Hiram Bingham, an American history teacher interested in finding the last Inca strongholds of Vilcabamba, heard about Lizarraga from its contacts with the local landowners. It was reached Machu Picchu June, 24, 1911 guided by another tenant of land, Melchor Arteaga, and accompanied by a surname Peruvian civil guard Sergeant Carrasco. They found two farm families living there: the Recharte and Alvarez, who used the ruins South terraces to cultivate and drank water from an Inca still worked and channel bringing water from a spring. Pablo Recharte, one of the children of Machu Picchu, guided Bingham "urban area" covered by weeds.

Bingham was very impressed by what they saw and handled the auspices of Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the Peruvian Government to immediately start the scientific study of the site. As well, with engineer Ellwood Erdis, osteologist George Eaton, the direct involvement of Anacleto Alvarez and Toribio Recharte and a group of anonymous workers in the area, Bingham directed archaeological work in Machu Picchu in 1912 to 1915 period are cleared the weeds and dug Inca tombs on the outside of the city. The "public life" of Machu Picchu began in 1913 with the publication of all this in an article in National Geographic magazine.

While it is clear that Bingham does not discover Machu Picchu in the strict sense of the word (nobody did given that never was "lost" indeed), is no doubt that had the merit of being the first person to recognise the importance of the ruins, studying them with a multidisciplinary team and disseminating their findings. This despite archaeological criteria were not the most appropriate current perspective and also, despite the controversy surrounding irregular departure of excavated archaeological material than today (consisting of at least a few 46.332 pieces) and until 2010 has not been returned to the Peruvian Government.


Machu Picchu from 1915

Machu Picchu

Between 1924 and 1928 Martín Chambi and Juan Manuel Figueroa made a series of photographs in Machu Picchu that were published in different Peruvian journals, expand the local interest on the ruins and becoming a national symbol. With passing decades and especially since the opening in 1948 a passable road amounting the slope of the mountain to the ruins from the train station, Machu Picchu became the main tourist destination in Peru. During the first two thirds of the 20th century, however, interest in tourist exploitation was greater than conservation and study of the ruins, which did not prevent some notable researchers to move to solve the mysteries of Machu Picchu, highlighting especially the work of the Viking Found directed by Paul Fejos Inca site of Machu Picchu environment ("discovering" multiple establishments of the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu) and investigations of Luis e. Valcárcel viewing for the first time to site with Pachacútec. It is from 1970s new generations of archeologists (Chávez Ballón Lorenzo Ramos Condori, Zapata, Sánchez, Valencia, Gibaja), historians Glave and Remy, Rowe (Angles) astronomers (Dearborn, White, Thomson) and anthropologists (Reinhard, Urton) deal with research of ruins and its past.

The establishment of an area of environmental protection into the ruins in 1981, including Machu Picchu as part of the World Heritage list in 1983, and the adoption of a Master Plan for the sustainable development of the region in 2005 have been the most important milestones in the effort to preserve Machu Picchu and its surroundings. However some bad partial restorations in the past have conspired against these efforts wildfires as of 1997 and political conflicts that have arisen in the nearby towns for a better distribution of the resources provided by the State in the administration of the ruins.


Machu Picchu Description

The area built in Machu Picchu is 530 feet long by 200 width and includes at least 172 sites. The complex is clearly divided into two large areas: agricultural area, formed by sets of farming terraces, located to the South; and the urban area, which is, of course, one where their occupants lived and where were the main civil and religious activities. Both areas are separated by a wall, a moat and a staircase, running parallels on the eastern slope of the mountain.

A significant part of the ruins that can be seen today are in fact recent reconstructions as shown by comparing the images obtained in the 1910s to the current.


Machu Picchu Agricultural Area

Machu Picchu

Platforms (cultivation terraces) of Machu Pichu look like big steps built on the slope. They are structures formed by a stone wall and a filling of different layers of material (boulders, smaller stones, gravel, clay and farmland) that facilitate cultivation drainage, preventing the water empoce in them (take into account the large rainfall in the area) and grasped its structure. This type of construction allowed it till about them until the first decade of the 20th century. Other less wide platforms are in lower Machu Picchu, around the entire city. Their function was not agriculture but serve as retaining walls.

Five large buildings are located on the platforms to the East of the Inca trail which arrives at Machu Picchu from the South. They were used as colcas or warehouses. West of the road are other two large sets of platforms: concentric semi-circular cut and other straight.


Machu Picchu Urban Area

About 400 metres long wall divides the city of the agricultural area. Parallel to the wall runs a "moat" used as the main drainage of the city. The door of Machu Picchu which had an internal closure mechanism is at the top of the wall.

The urban area has been divided by current archaeologists in groups of buildings called by a number between 1 and 18. Still valid schema raised by Chávez Ballón in 1961 that divides in a sector hanan (high) and another hurin (lower) according to the traditional process of society and the Andean hierarchy. The physical axis of this Division is a square elongated, built on terraces on different levels according to the decline of the mountain.

The second axis in the city's importance is cross with the former going through almost the whole width of the ruins from East to West: consists of two elements: a wide and long staircase which makes the times of "main street" and a set of elaborate sources of water that runs parallel to it.

At the intersection of both axes are the residence of the Inca temple observatory of the tower and the first and most important sources of water.


Hanan Sector

Set 1

Set 1 includes related care structures that arrived at the city gate (" vestibular area"), stables for camelid, workshops, kitchens and bedrooms. All this to the East side of the road, in a succession of parallel streets which down the slope of the mountain. Major construction, the vestibular building had two floors and several accesses. Left-hand path entry there are lesser rooms that would be related to work in the quarries situated in the vicinity of this sector. All constructions are of common rigging and many of them were plastered and painted.


Temple of the Sun

You can access it by jamba double cover remained closed (there are remains of a security mechanism). The main building is known as the "Tower" of finely carved blocks. It was used for ceremonies connected with the June Solstice. One of their Windows shows traces of having embedded ornaments were blown down at some point in the history of Machu Picchu, destroying part of its structure. There are traces of a large fire in the workplace. The tower is built on a rock below which there is a small cave lined with fine masonry. Thought it was a mausoleum and that its mummies lay great niches. Lumbreras even speculates that there is evidence to say that it could be the mausoleum of Pachacutec, and his mummy was here until shortly after the Spanish outbreak in Cusco.


Residence Royal

Of buildings intended for housing is the finest, largest and best distributed of Machu Picchu. Its gateway is the first source of the city and across the "Street" formed by the grand staircase to the Temple of the Sun. It includes two rooms of big monolithic lintels and well carved stone walls. These rooms have access to a quarter of a service with a drainage canal. The set includes a corral for camelids and a private terrace with view to the East side of the city.


Sacred Plaza

Called as a set of buildings arranged in a square courtyard. All evidence indicates that the site was destined to different rituals. Includes two of the best Machu Picchu, buildings that are formed by large carved rocks: the Temple of three Windows, whose walls of large polygonal blocks were assembled like a jigsaw puzzle and Temple main more regular blocks, believed he was the main ceremonial precinct of the city. Attached to this last is the so-called "house of the priest" or "ornaments chamber". There is evidence suggesting that the overall package is not over built.


Intihuatana

It is a hill whose flanks were converted in terrace, taking the form of a great polygon based pyramid. Includes two long North and South access stairs, latter especially interesting for being in a long I Gulf carved into a single rock. At the top, surrounded by constructions of elite, is stone Intihuatana (where the sun is tied), one of the most studied objects of Machu Picchu, which has been linked to a series of places considered sacred from which establishes clear alignment between astronomical events and the surrounding mountains.


Sector Urin

Sacred Rock

It is so called to a flatfaced stone placed on a broad pedestal. It is a milestone that marks the northern end of the city and is the starting point of the path to Huayna Picchu.


Group of the Three Covers

It is a comprehensive architectural ensemble dominated by three major kanchas symmetrically arranged and communicated among them. His covers of identical Bill, overlooking the main square of Machu Picchu. Includes housing and workshops.


Group of Mortars or Acllahuasi

It is the largest city in spite of which had a single gateway, something which would suggest that they were the Acllahuasi (or House of chosen women) of Machu Picchu, the religious service and fine craftsmanship. It includes a famous room well carved stone whose floor are two rocky outcrops carved in the form of circular mortar supposedly for grinding grains. Some authors believe they were filled with water and they reflect the stars. The set includes ritual use evidence, there are altars and even a kancha built around a big rock. Parts of their environments are being elite residences.


The Condor Group

It is an extensive set of buildings, not always regular stroke that leverages the contours of the rocks. It includes some of the caves with evidence for ritual use and a great stone in the center of a large patio in which many believe see the representation of a Condor. South of the "Condor" are elite housing who had the only private access to one of the sources of Machu Picchu. Between the housing and the courtyard of the Condor has identified clear remnants of buildings dedicated to raise guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).


Stairway of the Sources

It is a set consisting of a large staircase along which runs a system of 16 artificial waterfalls, most of which are carefully carved in polygonal and blocks surrounded by gutters carved in the rock. The water comes from a spring in the heights of the mountain Machu Picchu channelled in Inca times. An additional system on top of the mountain picks up the mountain rain leaks and derives them the main channel.


Constructive Aspects

Soils and Hydraulic Engineering

A stone city built on top of an "isthmus" between two mountains and between two geological, failures in a region subject to constant earthquakes and to copious rains throughout the year is a challenge for any Builder: avoid the complex unraveling. According to Alfredo Valencia and Kenneth Wright the secret of longevity of Machu Picchu is its drainage system. In fact the floor of their non-roof is equipped with a drainage system consisting of layers of rocks and gravel (crushed stones) to prevent rain water welled up. 129 drainage channels extend throughout the urban area, designed to prevent splashes and erosion, resulting in the most part in the "gap" between the urban areas of farming, which was actually the main drainage of the city. It is estimated that 60% of the constructive efforts of Machu Picchu was in making foundations on terraces filled with material for good drainage of excess water.


Buildings Orientation

There is strong evidence that builders had in mind astronomical and ritual criteria for construction according to the studies of Dearborn, White, Thomson and Reinhard, among others. Indeed, the alignment of some important buildings coincides with the azimuth solar during steadily solstices and therefore no chance, with the points of sunrise and sunset from the Sun at certain times of the year and the peaks of the surrounding mountains.


Machu Picchu Architecture

Materials

All preserved buildings are granite whitish, composite color in 60% by feldspar, 30% of quartz and 10% of mica. All the material came from quarries located in Inca complex contours.

The stone is between 6 to 7 degrees of hardness on the Mohs scale. In inkan times this was worked with Barrettes and other bronze tools (not used iron tools in the former Peru) and hardest stone hammers. The stones were excavated by abrasion with sand and stone.


Morphology

Almost all the buildings are rectangular. There are one, two and up to eight gates, usually in one of the long sides of the rectangle. There are few buildings curved plant and circulars.

The buildings called huayranas are frequent. These are just three walls. In these cases within the "missing wall" sometimes appears a Colonnade of stone to sustain a beam of wood which served as a support to the ceiling. There are also double huayranas, two huayranas together by a divide wall, which is called masmas.

Constructions usually follow the scheme the kanchas, i.e. four rectangular buildings arranged into a courtyard by a transverse symmetry axis. This Court gave all the doors.


Walls

Machu Picchu

The rigging of stone walls was basically of two types.
Current stone together with mortar mud and other substances. There is evidence that these buildings, which are mostly in Machu Picchu, were plastered with a layer of clay and painted in yellow and red colors at least), although the early break-up of ceilings made them vulnerable to ongoing rain of the area and has not therefore been retained.

Stone finely carved constructions of elite. They are blocks of granite, plaster and perfectly carved in the form of rectangular prisms (parallelepiped like brick) or polygonal. Their external faces could be cushioned, i.e. protruding, or perfectly smooth. In these cases the blocks union seems perfect and did assume that it has no mortar; but indeed yes does it, it is a thin layer of binder material found between stone and stone although it is invisible outside. The effort of these achievements in a society without iron tools (only knew the bronze, much softer) is remarkable.


Coverage

No original roof has been preserved, but there is consensus in most buildings had ceiling to two or four waters, there was even a conical roof over the "tower"; and it was formed by a framework of trunks of Alder (Alnus acuminata) moored and covered by layers of ichu (Stipa ichuun). The fragility of this type of straw and plentiful rainfall in the region necessitated that these roofs had large inclinations of up to 63 2°. Thus the height of the ceilings duplicated many times the height of the rest of the building.


Faades, Windows and Niches

As most of the covers is classic in Inca architecture, Windows and niches (called false windows, niches or cupboards) shaped Keystone, wider than based on the lintel. The lintels could be wood or stone (often just big block). The covers of the most important venues were double jamb and in some cases included an internal closure mechanism. The Interior of most of the buildings walls have niches in trapezoidal alongside windows. Cylindrical or rectangular blocks are often as large coat racks, walls arranged in symmetrical form with the niches or niches and windows, when there are.


Surroundings and Inca Roads

Machu PicchuMachu Picchu as part of a region of great economic movement in times of Pachacutec, comprised the Inca Empire roads network. Using these routes can, until now, access to other nearby Inca complexes of great interest. To the North by the Huayna Picchu trail branching can be called Temple of the Moon or the top of the mountain where there are Inca constructions. To the West is the road that leads to Intipata and passes through the famous "removable bridge". Another way, which amounted Agustín Lizárraga, leads to the river and San Miguel.

South, however, is the best-known route and the most important of all, is the Peru most popular trekking route. The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu is a journey of between 3 and 4 days through at the end of the 15th century was the main path to Machu Picchu, which began in the complex of Llactapata and passed through the ceremonial centers of Sayacmarca and Phuyupatamarca Wiñay Wayna, ending up in the "tambo" Intipunku "gated" entry to the domains of Machu Picchu and end point of the tour.


New Wonder of the World

July 7, 2007, Machu Picchu was chosen as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, a private initiative of New Open World Corporation (NOWC), created by Swiss Bernard Weber, not needing the endorsement of any institution or Government to continue its electoral purposes and allow select the wonders classified by the vote of more than 100 million voters. This vote was supported by the Government of Alan García Pérez, from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and sector tourism; This dissemination had fruit in a large participation of the Peruvian people as a whole and also at the international level. To know the results, President Alan Garcia declared by Supreme Decree, July 7 as "Day of the historic sanctuary of Machu Picchu" to recall the importance of the sanctuary to the world, recognize the participation of the Peruvian people vote and promote tourism.

The "new seven wonders of the modern world" were chosen by popular vote under rather than its historic or artistic merit, aesthetic, economic, tourist and recreational criteria do not have the support of institutions such as UNESCO. However, the distinction has great echo, which results in an important supplementary claim to attracting tourism. In fact, Machu Picchu is today the main tourist destination in the Peru with 600,000 visitors/year (MINCETUR) and one of the most desired by travellers from around the world.





 




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  Novotel Cusco Hotel   Novotel Cusco Hotels
  Casa Andina Private Collection Cusco Hotel   Casa Andina Private Collection Cusco Hotels
  Andean Wings Boutique In Cusco   Andean Wings Boutique - Cusco Hotels
  Libertador Palacio del Inka Cusco Hotel   Libertador Palacio del Inka Cusco Hotels
  Casona Inkaterra Hotel in Cusco   Casona Inkaterra - Cusco Hotels
  Casa Cartagena Hotel In Cusco   Casa Cartagena - Cusco Hotels
  Monasterio Hotel In Cusco   Monasterio Cusco Hotels




Best Cusco Tours

Cusco Tour 4/3

   Cusco Tour 3/2

Tours in Cusco , visit the best of peru in our tour Cusco, Machu Picchu, Tours in Cusco Peru.
Tours in Cusco , visit the best of peru in our tour Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu Picchu Tours in Cusco Peru.










Inca Trail Cusco 4/3

Inca Trail Luxury

Tours in Cusco , visit the best of peru in our tour Cusco, Machu Picchu, Tours in Cusco Peru.
Inca Trail to Machu Picchu Deluxe, visit the best of peru in tour Inca Trail to Machu Picchu.










Cusco Puno 6/5

Arequipa Cusco 8/7

Tours in Cusco , visit the best of peru in our tour Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu Picchu, Puno Tours in Cusco Peru.
Tour Arequipa, Colca, Cusco, Sacred Valley, Machu Picchu Tours in Cusco Peru, Tour to Peru.